Published October 30, 2008
There are a lot of interesting article summaries over at vgresearcher. Here is one that is particularly relevant to our project: “Affective response to video games: effects of personality, gender and in-game reinforcement (Chumbley & Griffiths, 2006)”
The abstract includes: ‘The implications of the impact of game-play on affect are discussed with reference to the concepts of “addiction” and “aggression.” This would be a good article for our lab to read. I’ve put this on our To get list, to get from interlibrary loan…. Hm, never mind! BU subscribes to Ebscohost and I got the full text).
The authors found:
Of particular interest is the finding that, by increasing the ratio of negative to positive reinforcement, participants experienced more frustration and less excitement. In-game reinforcement characteristics were also found to have an effect on the game’s “playa-ability.” An increase in the positive reinforcement was associated with a higher propensity to continue and return to play and vice versa.
— Prof. C-H
Golinkoff, R.M. & Alioto, A. (1995). Infant-directed speech facilitates lexical learning in adults hearing Chinese: implications for language acquisition. J Child Lang, 22, 703-720.
Characteristics and functions of ID speech (compared to ADS)
- slower speech rate
- extended frequency rage
- higher overal fundamental frequency
- repeated pitch contours
- marked intensity shiefts
- longer pauses
- simplified vocab
- lengthened vowels
Advantages of CDS
- intonational highlighting increases perceptual salience (Bock & Mazzella, 1983)
- seems to communicate positive affect (smiles from young infants are more effectively elicited by high-pitched human voice than by visual or other auditory stimuli – Wolf, 1963)
- increases eye-gaze in children (Santarcangelo & Dyer, 1988)
- generates greater attentiveness (Werker & McLeod, 1989)
- helps early word learning when highlighted word is at the end of a sentence due to both quality of input and recency effect (Fernald & Mazzie, 1991)
Exp 1: Can lexical learning (in foreign lang) for adults be facilitated by IDS?
- Monolingual Eng speakers assigned to either ID group or AD group
- Subjs looked at slides of common objects and hear an audio naming and talking about the objects in Chinese. Subjs asked to look at slide and focus on what is being siad.
- Test: Given 10 numbered Chinese words with 3 choices of English words to choose from. Then heard a speaker name those words in ADS and had to choose the correct Eng equivalent.
- Results: ID group (~65%) > AD group (~40% correct)
Exp 2: Does IDS help when placed in any part of the sentence or only in the final position?
- Subjs divided into 2 groups: target word medial and target word final (position)
- Same procedures as Exp 1
- Results: There was an interaction between IDS and sentence position. That is, IDS only had an effect on lexical learning when the target word was in the utterance-final position.
- IDS final > ADS final=IDS media